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Festgabe für Hildegard L.C. Tristram überreicht von Studenten,
Kollegen und Freunden des ehemaligen Faches Keltologie der
Albert-Ludwigs-Universität in Freiburg,
hrsg. von Gisbert Hemprich
Bonner Beiträge zur Keltologie, Band 1
Softcover, ix + 383 Seiten,
Ladenpreis 39,90 Euro (inkl. 7% MwSt, zuzügl. Porto & Verpackung)
mit Beiträgen in deutscher und englischer Sprache
Inhaltsverzeichnis & Abstracts
GEARÓID MAC EOIN
Schriftenverzeichnis Hildegard L.C. Tristram
Das insulare Lachen
Der unheimliche Eindringling: ein Motiv des amerikanischen Films der 1980er und 1990er Jahre
This article deals with the subject of the uncanny intruder in American films of the late 80s and the 90s. I examine three films: The Hand that Rocks the Cradle (dir. Curtis Hanson), Cape Fear (dir.Martin Scorsese) and Lost Highway (dir. David Lynch).
Sigmund Freud’s definition of the uncanny as well as assumptions about the aesthetics of the uncanny serve as a theoretical basis. My study of the films focuses on the following questions: What are the characteristics of the intruder and of the community he intrudes into? How do the aesthetic devices of the films create uncanny effects concerning the intruder?
The Hand that Rocks the Cradle is the most conventional of these films: it shows a well-functioning family life threatened by and finally saved from a rather predictable intruder, and it works with conventional Hollywood aesthetics to induce uncanny effects. In Cape Fear, the intruder mirrors a disturbed community.
He is characterized as uncanny by a number of aesthetic means which undermine the continuity style of Hollywood cinema. Lost Highway, finally, depicts a world where the border between the inner world and the outer world has become uncertain; the motif of the intruder serves to highlight this general feeling of insecurity. Lost Highway uses to a large extent aesthetic devices that break the continuity of film space, creating general feeling of uncanniness.
GRAHAM R. ISAAC
Wege der Kelten, Wege der Keltologie: kulturwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen zur Funktion einer Geisteswissenschaft
Like other “Arts Subjects”, Celtic Studies must continually justify its administrative and financial existence at institutions of higher education throughout the western world, the more so because it is a “small subject”. This is a reflex of general cultural developments in industrial and post-industrial societies, in which “education” as a value in itself is questioned and often made secondary to the concept of “training”. The function of “Arts Subjects” in such a society is definable in terms of the way they interpret and question the symbols of power within, and self-definitions of that society.
From this perspective, the paper argues, Celtic Studies is a welcome force for enlightenment in twenty-first-century Europe.
DAGMAR Ó RIAIN-RAEDEL
Iren im Schwarzwald: Das traurige Schicksal der Heiligen Landelin und Trudpert
Little is known about two seventh-century Irish saints, Trudpert and Landelin, who are venerated in the Black Forest, at St. Trudpert and Ettenheimmünster repectively. While their cults are documented from the tenth / eleventh centuries onwards, their Lives are later and contain few historical details. It is argued that the cults of the two saints were introduced during the eighth century when there was a well-documented Irish presence at Straßburg and at the island monastery of Honau. In this case, the foundations at St. Trudpert and Ettenheimmünster may be seen as being part of the expansionist politics of the Frankish monarchy in co-operation with the bishop of Strassburg and his
PÁDRAIG Ó RIAIN
Irland und Wales: ein hagiographischer Austausch
The four Welsh saints mentioned in the martyrologies compiled at Tallaght about 830 — Gildas, David, Beuno and Deiniol — are examined here against the background of the céili Dé movement then in progress in Ireland. The inclusion of the less well known pair, Beuno and Deiniol, is explained on the basis of the proximity of their churches, Aberffraw and Bangor, to the court of the kings of Gwynedd, which Irish clerics are known to have visited en route to and from the Continent. The point is also made that the lists of ‘local’ saints added to the Martyrology of Tallaght contain not only Irish but also Scottish and Anglo-Saxon saints. Therefore, the addition of some Welsh saints may
reflect the compiler’s apparent wish to glorify the céili Dé movement by associating with it saints from the whole of the island of Britain. Opportunistic hagiography of this kind can also be detected in the choice of Irish saints for inclusion in the much later Lives composed by Rhigyfarch and Lifris for the Welsh saints David and Cadog.
CAITRÍONA Ó DOCHARTAIGH
Questions of Orality, Performance and Transmission in Relation to Medieval Irish Prayer
A large corpus of devotional material survives in manuscript form from early medieval Ireland. On the occasions when these prayers, litanies and hymns have been discussed, it has usually been from a linguistic or doctrinal standpoint. There has been little investigation of their possible ritual contexts or of how the extant written texts relate to their oral performance in an act of worship. Theoretical models of orality are based primarily on narrative and are therefore not necessarily easily adapted to other genres of text. The hypothesis proposed here, however, is that applying the theories of orality to devotional material can add to our understanding of medieval religious practice as well as testing the universal applicability of these models. Such an exercise may also help to elucidate questions about the relationship between prayer in memory and written prayer. In addition, there is the significant issue of transmission, whether orally, or through a written medium, and the subtle interchange between the two. It is intended here to highlight some of the questions posed by these reflections and to suggest ways in which an indepth investigation might proceed.
FEARGAL Ó BÉARRA
The Otherworld Realm of Tír Scáith
The journey of the hero to the Otherworld is a familiar theme in the early literature of Ireland. The Early Middle Irish didactic text Síaburcharpat Con Culaind contains three separate accounts of Cú Chulainn’s journeys to the hostile otherworld realms of Lochlainn, Ifrend and Tír Scáith. The contrasting of the imagery of light and dark as well as that of diametrically opposite concepts through the creation of sets of homonymic pairs i. e. the creation of coincidentia oppositorum, is a quite common penchant of the Christian redactors, and is found in much of the earlier literature. Much of the imagery found in the Síaburcharpat Con Culaind account of the journey to Tír Scáith bears a close resemblance to that of the dread-inspiring mediaeval Christian imagery of Hell. The redactor of the tale sought to appropriate the pre-existing native familiarity with the concept of an orbis alius as a means of introducing his audience to the torments and horrors of the unfamiliar Christian (unhappy) orbis alius, thus furthering the propagation of the Faith and satisfying the Church’s hunger for the salvation of souls.
Aspects of translating Irish into the Japanese language – táin, túath, rí
This paper looks at the difficulties which arise when translating certain Old-Irish terms for which there are a variety of expressions in the original text into Japanese. Contrasting social, historic and geographic backgrounds have equipped the two languages in very different ways and the Japanese language often lacks the terms for very particular and important concepts in early Irish literature. The translator’s challenge is to convey these concepts and this other world to the Japanese reader with the tools of language available.
Notes on the Runic Inscriptions in Wales
On their journeys to the British Isles, the vikings came to Wales as well as is confirmed by literary sources as well as by several Norse loanwords in the Welsh language.
The question is whether they left further evidence in Wales in form of possible runic inscriptions.
Tancorix, Gwledyr und andere „richtungweisende“ Frauen
The Celtic usage of personal names ending in -rix (apparently meaning ‘king’) for both men and women has always been regarded as strange. A fresh interpretation, based on results of Comparative Grammar, offers a new way of understanding these names as sensible formations. Celtic -rix (fem.) is the exact equivalent of the Vedic root noun raj- (fem.). The Gaulish and British names in question are Governing compounds or Bahuvrıhis. Thus, Celtic provides further support for the view that Proto-Indo-European *reg-s (‘king’) cannot be reconstructed, all such words being the result of parallel, but later i. e. einzelsprachlich developments.
Die Historia de Enoch et Elia: eine Navigatio aus der Bretagne
This contribution presents a German translation of a navigatio which is contained in a world chronicle written by the 12th-century author Godfrey of Viterbo. He claims as his source a prose tale recorded in the monastery of Saint-Mathieu in Finistère, Brittany.
In the Historia de Enoch et Elia, a group of hundred monks sets out from Saint-Mathieu to explore the regions of the sea. After an odyssey of three years, they are directed by two golden statues to a paradisiacal mountainous island in which everything is made of gold and precious stones and where they meet Enoch and Elias. On returning home to Britanny, they find that everything has changed beyond recognition; since their departure three hundred years have passed. The Latin text of the navigatio is taken from the edition by Burkhard Gotthelf STRUVE (1726).
Scottish Vowel Systems
Both the Celtic and the Germanic languages of the British Isles inherited from IE a system of distinctions based (inter alia) on vowel length. The English dialects of England and Ireland and the Gaelic dialects of Scotland and Ireland have maintained these distinctions. However, in the P-Celtic language of Wales and in the Scottish dialects derived from northern Old English a radical change has taken place. The inherited vowel length distinctions have been completely restructured and new length distinctions introduced based on syllable structure. As the resulting vowel systems are strikingly similar, it is claimed that the changes in Scotland are due to P-Celtic substratum.
The Scots Dialect in Northern Ireland – A Rival for Irish?
The essay seeks to sketch out to those unfamiliar with Scots and its Ulster variety the dialect’s background and present-day status in Northern Ireland together with certain of the political and linguistic issues surrounding it. The rivalry with and shadowing of the Irish language are addressed, as are the innovative orthography of Ulster-Scots and the theory and reality of its cultural and ethnological associations.
Finally, the question is posed whether the rapid rise of the newly recognized tongue can continue.
ASTRID FIESS & LARS KABEL
Linguistische Realität und Sprachenlernen: kritische Gedanken zu einigen Lehrwerken des Irischen
How are the sociolinguistic realities of a lesser-used language like Irish reflected in teaching manuals and to what extent can and should a course book deal with these realities? These are the main questions we investigate in this article. We compare three contemporary Irish courses — Lehrbuch der irischen Sprache (the German translation of Learning Irish) by Mícheál Ó Siadhail, Teach Yourself Irish by Diarmuid Ó Sé & Joseph Sheils and Now You’re Talking by Éamonn Ó Dónaill & Deirbhile Ní Churraighín. After a general introduction and a description of the structure of the books, we look at the teaching methods the authors use. Then we examine the linguistic forms of Irish the manuals are based on and, finally, we investigate what images and contexts of Irish communication are being conveyed.
Ó Siadhail uses the classic grammar-translation method. His course is based on the dialect of Cois Fhairrge (Connacht) and the texts mainly deal — in a descriptive way rather than in dialogues — with the every-day life of Gaeltacht people. Teach Yourself Irish follows a communicative approach. The texts have the form of dialogues and usually portray the world of L2-Irish speakers. The same is true for Now You’re Talking.
However, here the dialogues are much more de-contextualised, i. e. no explicit situation is given, the speakers have no names and the texts are much shorter. Additionally, some background information about the Irish speaking world is given in an extra chapter at the end.
None of the books explicitly deals with the sociolinguistic situation of a language like Irish, i .e. the realities of code-mixing and code-switching. This might cause problems for learners who are unprepared with respect to these phenomena. Although a teaching manual cannot serve the function of an extensive dialect description or a scientific analysis of the sociolinguistic situation, we think it should prepare learners with enough background information to enable them to gain situationally adequate speaking competence.
Der erotische Blick auf Cú Chulainns Körper
The medieval figure of Cú Chulainn offers for its literary after-life in the modern period a wide range of options for re-writing and adaptation, for re-interpretation and re-vision. Within these processes, different interpretations with sometimes radically different emphases on his physical and mental traits have been advanced, and the notion of a specific ‘gaze’ on his person can help to capture these from a methodological point of view. In the following I offer analyses of Cathal Ó Searcaigh’s use of the literary figure of Cú Chulainn in his poem “Laoi Cumainn”, as an instance of an erotic gaze on the latter’s body, and of the different strategies of two translators of this poem with regard to their treatment of Ó Searcaigh’s indirect references to the medieval hero-figure. In order to contextualize Ó Searcaigh’s re-writing of Cú Chulainn, I will briefly contrast his (homo-)erotic gaze with Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill’s feminist gaze and also trace some traditions of an idealizing and eroticizing gaze on Cú Chulainn in the Gaelic Revival and in medieval Irish narratives.
CùChulainn agus a Leanabh
‘CùChulainn agus a leanabh’ is a story which is still told in Skye, probably because the old ruin of Dùn Sgathaich in Sleat, where CùChulainn is supposed to have received his training, keeps his memory alive. The present article is the transcript of a recording of Domhnall Dhonnchaidh, from Sleat, who had his stories mainly from his mother, Anna, who was recognized as the authority on history and genealogy in the area. The story is a variation of the well known motif (“Man erroneously kills watchful animal”; AaTh 178A) testified since late antique times. As its source we might consider some late version of the Welsh tale ‘Llewellyn and His Dog Gellert’ which was probably included in a school book used in Skye.
MEIDHBHÍN NÍ ÚRDAIL
Ein irisches Schmähgedicht aus dem 19. Jahrhundert
This paper presents a critical edition of a poem beginning A lucht iúil na Mumhan maorga which, according to its accompanying heading, was composed by Peadar (Peattair) Ó Longáin (b. 1801) from Cork. Only one copy appears to have survived, i. e. that in RIA MS 941 (23 C 10). The poem’s sardonic tone is reminiscent of the seventeenth-century anonymous prose composition Pairlement Chloinne Tomáis, or ‘The Parliament of Clann Tomáis’, and it echoes a continuing underlying theme in the latter work, i. e. the downfall of the native mandarin class and a concomitant loss of native learning. The object of the poet’s scathing tongue is identified in line twenty-eight as Ribeart an méirleach, or ‘Robert the villain’, a representative of a boorish peasant class who slavishly apes an English-orientated gentry.
Zu Réidig dam a Dé do nim / co hémidh a n-indisin
Between 1953 and 1959 Seán Mac Airt published in Revue Celtiques a long synchronistic poem ascribed to Flann Mainistrech, beginning Réidig dam a Dé do nim / co hémidh a n-indisin. Mac Airt’s early death in 1959, however, prevented the completion of the publication series. It lacks the final part which deals with the Roman emperors.
Unfortunately, Mac Airt’s edition and translation is in many points unsatisfactory, as it contains a number of misreadings—due to both scribal errors and misinterpretation of some of the classical names by the editor — and false conclusions which were accepted by scholars up until the present day.
In the following contribution I will attempt a new evaluation of the poem and its author, and will deal with its textual transmission and palaeography, structure, content and cultural background. This will be undertaken on the basis of a complete new collation of all versions, including the unedited part. Of the latter I add a computer facsimile of this poem in the Royal Irish Academy MS Div 3 (1224) and will discuss the merits of such a device for scientific and didactic purposes.
The present work is a by-product of an extensive investigation of the annals, synchronisms, Lebor Gabála and further related traditions, the starting point of which is my intension to prepare a future edition of the so called Annals of Tigernach contained in Rawl. B 502 (cf. SCHMIDT 1993).
Die frühen Fassungen von Éri óg inis na náem
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